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Drug Addiction

What is drug addiction?

The American Society of Addiction Medicine defines addiction as “a treatable, chronic medical disease involving complex interactions among brain circuits, genetics, the environment, and an individual’s life experiences.” This disease impacts countless lives in America. There are no boundaries with addiction. People from all ages, backgrounds, and ethnicities see their lives or the lives of their loved ones touched and harmed by this disease.

A person with a substance use disorder continues using drugs, even when they know it is harmful to themselves or others. This means that even when you know that using drugs is destructive, you find yourself unable to stop or even control your use. You may experience a lack of control over when and how much you use, overwhelming urges to use, and physical or mental cravings. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should contact a medical or addiction professional to seek help.

This complex condition affects the reward, motivation, and memory functions of the brain. It is also chronic (recurring), and you can experience a recurrence even after a period of not using. This is why some people return to using drugs even after a period of stopping. While this may sound discouraging, it is not. For many, an evidence-based treatment program can provide an effective way to stop using drugs. Whether it is your first time seeking treatment, or you’ve experienced a period of abstinence and start using drugs again, you can reclaim your life.

Drug Use Statistics

In 2019, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported that 57.2 million people in the United States, or 20.8% of the population aged 12 and older, had used drugs. This number combines misusing prescriptions and using illicit drugs like cocaine, heroin, and others, as well as alcohol abuse (AUD). Almost half of the people, 20.4 million, met the clinical criteria for alcohol and substance use disorders and 2.4 million people met the criteria for both.

Many people who have a substance use disorder (SUD) also struggle with mental illness. Data shows that 51.5 million Americans live with mental illness, and within that number, 9.5 million also struggle with an alcohol and/or substance use disorder.

Your path to recovery is waiting
and we’re here to help.

Our admissions specialist are available 24/7 to listen to your story
and get you started with next steps.

Why call us?

The numbers for people receiving treatment are shockingly low. If you are seeking help, we are ready to help you. A call to one of our admissions representatives will connect you with someone who cares and can help you find the treatment you need.

Why do people take drugs?

Drug use starts for many reasons. It’s not uncommon to start in your teens because you had friends who were experimenting. Peer pressure is intense when you’re younger because there’s a threat of losing friends or not fitting in if you don’t try using drugs.

For others, it may be environmental. This means you are in an environment where people use drugs openly, and it seems like normal behavior.

For some, regardless of age, the effects of drugs feel good, and you want those feelings to continue. Using substances is also a way to relieve stress and improve performance, such as using stimulants like Adderall in college to perform better on tests. If you have a co-occurring disorder, drugs may be your way to “self-medicate” or use drugs to relieve mental illness symptoms.

Risk Factors For Addiction

Why do some people become addicted, and others don’t?

Currently, there is no test you can take that will tell you before using drugs that you may or may not become addicted. There are, however, common risk factors that can influence whether you develop a substance use disorder. These fall into several categories and include genetics or biology, environment, co-occurring disorders, age when you started using, and substance type.

Protective factors, which can be genetic or environmental, can reduce your risk of developing a substance use disorder. Examples of protective factors include positive relationships with family and peers, self-discipline, neighborhood resources, a focus on school, and parental support while growing up and into adulthood.

How does addiction develop?

Addiction develops in several ways; to date, researchers are unable to pick one specific cause. Instead, it appears to be a combination of factors, including genetics or biology accounting for forty to sixty percent of risk, environment, and the emerging field of epigenetics.

Biology

Research shows differences in proteins (which are encoded in DNA) can play a role in how vulnerable you are to developing a substance use disorder. DNA is the genetic code that is passed from parent to child. The DNA will tell your cells what proteins to build, and in the case of addiction, it appears this protein development is a significant biological risk factor for addiction.

What environmental factors increase the risk of addiction?

The environment can be seen as the people, places, and things in your life that you grew up with or are currently around. For children and young teens, an environment where drug use is normalized is a risk factor for developing a substance use disorder. The role of peers is significant. If your friends while growing up used drugs or alcohol, you may have felt increased pressure to try them to fit in and continue to maintain friendships. Other impactful factors include parental supervision and involvement, childhood trauma, family mental illness, and availability of drugs.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics can be defined as the relationship of the environment on genes, which can trigger changes in genetic proteins. It helps to think of this as turning on a lightbulb. A dark environment is influenced by turning on the light to make it bright, affecting change.

There is evidence that supports changes in genes due to external influences. This research is critical in the study of addiction to see how the environment and choices make changes in your genes, resulting in a substance use disorder.

Recognizing Signs of Drug Use or Intoxication

Often, family and friends will be the first to start noticing significant physical appearance changes and other behaviors. Some signs of drug use can include:

  • Personality changes, including mood swings. Changes in personality or frequent moodiness
  • Bloodshot eyes
  • Pinpoint pupils
  • Changes in routine
  • A decrease in self-care, such as showering or eating habits.
  • Financial problems.
  • Interpersonal problems, such as issues with family or friends.
  • Being fired or quitting a job.
  • Track marks (signs of injections)
  • Anti-social behavior, including avoidance of friends or family.
  • Legal troubles.
  • Spending time with a circle of friends who are also using drugs.

What drugs are addictive?

Cocaine

Cocaine is made from the leaves of the South American coca plant. Though it was used historically for medicinal purposes, it is a Schedule II drug, which means it has a high potential for abuse. Cocaine is a stimulant, and users report intense energy and focus while using cocaine. It comes as a white powder that can be snorted, smoked, or injected.

Because cocaine is a stimulant, key receptors in the brain become active, and you may have more energy and feel an intense sense of euphoria. Tolerance develops quickly if you use cocaine; this leads to using more of the drug more frequently. Using cocaine can be deadly as it may cause strokes, brain hemorrhages, or heart attacks.

Long-term use can lead to nasal damage if you snort the drug, chronic nosebleeds, and bowel infection, and death of bowel tissue due to decrease blood flow to the bowel.

If you are pregnant and using cocaine regularly, your baby may be born addicted and experience withdrawals. If you are pregnant, consider speaking with your obstetrician, who can direct you to help.

Crack Cocaine

Crack cocaine is made from cocaine, and it is a stimulant. This highly addictive solid form of cocaine is processed and resembles a small rock. The intensity of the high creates a physical and mental compulsion to continue using the drug and can lead to heart attacks, strokes, or even seizures.

Crack produces an immediate short-term high when it is smoked, leading to a compulsion to continue using it. The long-term impacts are similar to cocaine, as are the effects of crack use during pregnancy.

Crystal Meth

Crystal Meth is an extremely addictive stimulant that is chemically similar to amphetamines (legally prescribed). This drug impacts the central nervous system, and you feel an overwhelming rush of energy and good feelings from the first time you use it. This is because dopamine floods the parts of your brain that control pleasure, and this rush often causes people to begin daily use almost immediately after first use.

This drug has no legal uses and can look like a shiny rock or glass fragment. It can be snorted, injected, or smoked. It’s possible to overdose on meth if your body temperature rises too high; also, psychosis is likely due to lack of sleep. Other short-term effects include increased blood pressure and heart rate. Chronic use of crystal meth can lead to severe dental problems (meth mouth), delusions, paranoia, and sores due to constant scratching. If you share needles, you are at risk of Hepatitis C and HIV, the virus which leads to AIDS.

Fentanyl

Fentanyl is a potent Schedule II opioid similar to morphine but 50 to 100 times more powerful. While it has legitimate medical uses, it is responsible for multiple overdose deaths across the country. It’s commonly with other drugs such as heroin, crack cocaine, counterfeit pills, and more. It’s impossible to visually tell if fentanyl is mixed with other drugs, which leads to an increase in the risk of overdosing and the risk of dying.

For some, fentanyl is a drug of choice even with the dangers associated with its use because it can be difficult to obtain heroin or other opiates. Like most opioids, fentanyl provides a feeling of euphoria as it acts on the dopamine receptors in your brain.

Short-term effects include confusion, slurred speech, decreased concentration, and potential for overdose. Repeated use of fentanyl can cause brain damage and a reduction in brain mass because your brain doesn’t receive enough oxygen while using the drug.

Heroin

Heroin is a highly addictive opioid made from opium poppy plants that produce an intensely pleasurable feeling for users. In addition to its addictive nature, heroin users are at risk of an overdose by taking too much, resulting in death or permanent injury. It can be smoked, snorted, or injected intravenously.

Short-term health effects include slowed respiration, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term effects can consist of collapsed veins for intravenous (IV) users, abscesses at injection sites, heart infections, liver and/or kidney disease.

The reality of death from an overdose cannot be understated. This can happen when you take too much, or you take heroin that has been mixed or cut with unknown substances. No matter how you take the drug, IV, snorting, or smoking, you are at risk of overdose. Signs of an overdose include:

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Bluish skin tone from lack of oxygen, especially around lips and fingernails.
  • Choking sounds
  • Nonresponsive to light or sound
  • Vomiting

Kratom

Kratom is a plant with relaxing effects and is thought to act on opioid receptors; thus, many people use it as a substitute for opioids or ease the symptoms of opioid withdrawals. Many people see it as a safe alternative to opioids, and its use is not regulated in the U.S. It can be legally purchased in Kratom/Kava Bars, ordered online, or purchased as a health supplement.

Kratom has many effects. Short-term, you may experience loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness, and sweating. Long-term effects include hallucinations (with long-term high dose usage), insomnia, and weight-loss. There is little information on the cumulative effects of using kratom.

The higher the dose you have been using and the frequency of use can cause many of the same symptoms as opiate/opioid withdrawals. If you are using more than five grams a day or taking it more than three times a day, you can increase your risk for dependence and subsequent withdrawals.

Marijuana

Marijuana contains the leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant. Using marijuana results in a state of euphoria, an altered state of mind, and impaired short-term memory. Though legalized in many states, marijuana can still be misused by persons with substance use disorders. It can be smoked, vaped, or eaten.

Marijuana produces a feeling of euphoria, and it intensifies your perception. It can also create problems with coordination, increased heart rate, and in some, anxiety. People who use marijuana risk long-term health impacts, including mental health issues, chronic coughs, and respiratory infections. Evidence suggests that the younger the age at which you started using marijuana, the more significant potential for permanent changes to the brain.

MDMA/Molly

MDMA/Molly are referred to by many as club drugs as they gained popularity in the club scene. They are synthetic drugs that are similar to hallucinogens and stimulants. They produce effects such as increased energy, pleasure, and distorted time and sensory perceptions.

It is possible to overdose on MDMA/Molly. This happens when your body temperature rises rapidly, and this can cause kidney failure or death. Long-term use can lead to depression, problems with attention and memory, as well as increased impulsivity.

Synthetics

Synthetics can be divided into synthetic cannabinoids such as Spice or K2 and cathinones such as “bath salts.” Both can produce intense highs and are unpredictable in their effects on people.

Synthetic cannabinoids are smoked and are unpredictable in their effect on you. Some side effects include hallucinations, paranoia, confusion, and extreme agitation. There is not enough research on these substances to understand the long-term impact on your brain.

Bath salts are not meant to be ingested. They are usually over-the-counter cleaners that people have started to use to get high. Common ways to take them include smoking, swallowing, and IV. Effects are similar to synthetic cannabinoids with an increased long-term risk of HIV or hepatitis from sharing needles. Long-term effects are unclear and require more research.

Inhalants

Inhalants are substances such as aerosols, solvents (e.g., paint thinner), and nitrites, used by inhaling through the mouth or nose.

These substances produce varied effects, such as disinhibition, hallucinations, and euphoria. Inhalants may seem harmless to some; however, they can have severe short- and long-term health implications. You are at risk of death by asphyxiation, heart failure, sudden death, convulsions, coma, and choking. Over the long-term, you may develop liver and kidney damage, brain damage from lack of oxygen, and nerve damage that can cause recurring spasms.

Impact Of Drug Use On The Brain

Drug use has short- and long-term impacts on brain functions from the prefrontal cortex, responsible for decision-making, to the brain stem itself. Four areas that are affected by drugs are:

The basal ganglia is your brain’s reward circuit meaning it controls pleasurable feelings. Without drugs, this area rewards you with good feelings when you engage in pleasurable activities, such as eating, spending time with friends, or sex. With long-term drug use, this part of your brain becomes dependent on the drug’s euphoria, and it becomes increasingly difficult to experience pleasure unless you are using substances.

The extended amygdala has a role in stressful emotions, including anxiety and irritability. Drugs impact this part of your brain, increasing its sensitivity. When you suddenly stop using drugs, you may begin to feel anxiety and unease. To relieve these feelings, you may reach for drugs again for relief, which creates dependency.

The prefrontal cortex is responsible for decision-making, thinking, and controlling impulsivity. It is also the last part of the brain to fully develop, which means that the younger you started using drugs, the more impact they have had on your developing brain. Drugs directly impact this area of the brain as your impulse control becomes diminished. You may seek drugs compulsively, with little thought to short- or long-term consequences of your use.

The brain stem controls your body’s functions, such as breathing and heart rate. Overdoses directly impact this area by depressing breathing, which can lead to death.

Dopamine And Drug Use

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, which means it transmits messages in your brain. As the brain and its functions are studied, we learn more about dopamine’s vital role and the impact of drugs on this messenger.

Early research led scientists to believe surges of dopamine released by drugs directly influenced pleasure. Now, research shows dopamine actually helps reinforce the use of drugs by repeating the pleasurable activity to release dopamine. The reward cycle that begins to occur reinforces that drugs equal pleasure, which increases the likelihood of repeating drug use.

Does drug use cause other mental disorders or vice versa?

When a person is diagnosed with a substance use disorder and a mental health disorder, it is often called a dual diagnosis or co-occurring disorder. Some people start using drugs because they have an underlying mental health disorder such as depression or anxiety. You may use drugs to change the symptoms of an existing condition, which is called self-medicating. It’s also possible for you to develop a mental illness due to using drugs because of the impact drugs have on your brain. It’s important to understand that each condition impacts the other.

Surprising or not, drugs can significantly impact mental illness and cause or increase symptoms. It’s not uncommon that these two conditions exacerbate the other. Knowing which came first is not as important as getting help for both in an evidence-based dual diagnosis treatment center, which will treat both simultaneously. Treatment for both can improve your overall mental health and well-being. A call to one of our admissions counselors can help you find treatment for your co-occurring disorders.

How do I know if I'm addicted to drugs?

You can watch for signs that indicate that can help you determine whether you are having a problem with drugs. When you take a drug, do you:

  • Use more each time (tolerance)?
  • Crave the drug when you don’t have it?
  • Experience withdrawal, such as shaking or sweating when you aren’t using (dependence)?
  • Continue using even when faced with negative consequences, such as losing a job, friends, or legal troubles?
  • Struggle to control your use, such as when you use and how much you use?
  • Do things out of character, such as stealing from friends or family or lying about what you do or your drug use?
  • Struggle to take care of yourself, such as eating, showering, or sleep?
  • Has your tolerance increased?

What are Tolerance and Dependence?

It’s important to understand that tolerance and dependence are physical aspects of drug use. Having one or the other does not necessarily mean you have a substance use disorder. If you do have concerns, you should reach out to a medical professional to discuss your concerns.

Tolerance

Tolerance develops when your body starts reacting differently to drugs. This means you need a higher dose at a greater frequency to feel the effects you did when you started using a drug. You may develop a tolerance to prescribed medication, even when taking it exactly as prescribed. This is a physical reaction and may not be a sign of a substance use disorder.

Dependence

Dependence can be a physical symptom of drug use. Certain drugs impact your body in such a way that stopping their use creates physical and mental symptoms, including mood swings, anxiety, sweating, vomiting, and body aches. Sometimes, stopping a prescribed medication can cause withdrawal symptoms. You should only stop medication under the care of a doctor or other prescriber.

Withdrawal

If you’ve suddenly stopped using drugs or alcohol, you may experience withdrawal symptoms. This is caused by a physical dependence on a drug to function normally. Drugs that can cause withdrawals include:

Opioids/Opiates Withdrawal

For drugs such as heroin to prescription pain killers, the onset of symptoms is around 8–24 hours after last use and usually last 4–10 days.

  • Abdominal cramps
  • Nausea
  • Anxiety
  • Sweating
  • Fast pulse (tachycardia)
  • Fevers
  • High blood pressure

Benzodiazepines Withdrawal

There are two types of benzodiazepines, short-acting and long-acting. For Xanax and other short-acting benzos, the onset of symptoms occurs 24–48 hours after last use and can last 2–4 weeks, in some cases longer. In the cases of long-acting benzos, like Valium, the onset of symptoms start to show 2–7 days after last use and can last for 2–8 weeks, in some cases longer.

  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Restlessness
  • Agitation and irritability
  • Poor concentration and memory
  • Muscle tension and aches
  • Seizures (can be life-threatening)
  • Delirium (can include hallucinations and disorientation)

Stimulant Withdrawal

Substances classified as stimulants such as cocaine, crystal meth, or amphetamines can have withdrawal symptoms start 8-24 hours after last use and can last 3–5 days.

  • Depression
  • Insomnia
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Paranoia
  • Cravings
  • Poor concentration
  • Treatment for withdrawals

Treating withdrawal depends on the drugs you’ve been using and should always be done under the care of a medical or addiction professional or in a drug and alcohol inpatient detox. Because many drugs cause physical symptoms, including seizures, erratic heart rate, and blood pressure changes, complications may lead to death. This is especially true for alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawals.

A detox can prescribe medications that ease the symptoms you are having. For alcohol, it is common to place you on a tapered (or decreasing dose) of a benzodiazepine, as well as an anti-seizure medication. If you are detoxing from an opiate, a decreasing dose of suboxone is frequently used to relieve your physical symptoms. Best practices for benzodiazepine withdrawal are to place you on a tapered dosage of a benzo such as Ativan to relieve the physical symptoms and decrease your risk of having an adverse physical event such as a seizure. If you have been using stimulants, you may be given medications to relieve anxiety and help you sleep.

No matter the drug you have been using, we are available to help you get the treatment you need to stop using drugs and begin the process of healing and recovery.

What kinds of treatment are available to me?

There are many treatment options available to you when you are ready to stop using drugs and move on to a life in recovery. Because substance use disorders are treatable medical conditions, most insurance companies will cover treatment services for you. Some options include detox, inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, including partial hospitalization programs (PHP) and intensive outpatient programs (IOP), and outpatient treatment, such as meeting with a therapist and attending a support group. If you are curious about treatment, it’s a good idea to speak with an addiction specialist, your primary care physician, or a therapist who can help you understand whether treatment is a good fit for you.

Most programs provide a combination of group and individual therapy, so you can start understanding your addiction and develop new coping strategies. Group sessions benefit you as you can build healthier connections with people centered on recovery rather than substance use. One-on-one therapy can help you address trauma, anxiety, and other conditions contributing to your substance use disorder.

In addition, you will attend 12-step or other mutual support meetings. This helps as you begin to meet people in recovery, and you can start building the connections and support that will help you when you leave treatment. You will also have nutrition classes, expressive therapy and can participate in family therapy sessions.

When you do find a treatment center, there are several things to look for:

  • What level of treatment is offered?
  • If I need to detox, where will I detox?
  • How long is treatment for?
  • Will I be prescribed medications?
  • Is treatment available for co-occurring disorders?
  • What behavioral therapies are used?

The most effective treatment programs are grounded in evidence-based practices, provide treatment for co-occurring disorders and assess and adapt your treatment plan as your needs change. Crystal Lake prides itself on our unique approach to treatment, and a call to one of our admissions representatives can start your recovery at Crystal Lake.

We offer:

  • “Talk Therapy” or behavioral counseling in groups or one-on-one.
  • Medication management
  • Evaluation for co-occurring disorders.
  • Treatment for conditions such as anxiety, depression, or trauma
  • Long-term planning and follow-up to prevent relapse.

How do behavioral therapies help substance use disorders?

Behavioral therapies help you recover from a substance use disorder in several ways. They provide a way for you to talk about your thoughts, feelings, and experiences and process them without the use of drugs. You will also learn new ways of coping with everyday stresses instead of using substances. Therapy can also help relapse prevention by looking at your thoughts and beliefs about using drugs and provide the opportunity to learn skills to help your recovery.

Crystal Lake’s highly skilled therapists utilize a variety of therapeutic approaches in your treatment. These include:

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps you change your behavior by examining your thoughts and perceptions.

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) – Dialectical behavioral therapy is a form of CBT that helps you by focusing on learning coping skills in four areas, mindfulness, interpersonal relationships, emotion regulation, and how to tolerate stressful situations.

Dual Diagnosis Treatment – The most effective treatment for co-occurring disorders is integrated and treats both substance use and mental health simultaneously. Therapists use different therapeutic modalities, including CBT, DBT, group therapy, individual therapy, and more, to treat both substance use and mental health.

Expressive Therapy – Expressive therapy helps you connect with emotions through art and other creative tools.

Individual Counseling – Individual counseling or psychotherapy is a process of meeting in a personal session with a licensed therapist who will help you address your substance or alcohol use and mental health disorders.

Trauma-Informed Counseling (TIC) – Trauma-informed care is an approach therapists use when talking to work with you in a way that doesn’t cause retraumatization.

What medications can help treat drug addiction?

There are several different options for medications that can help you in your recovery. Medications can help reduce your risk of overdose and help you as you treat your substance use disorder.

Opioid Use Disorder

Buprenorphine – This medication blocks withdrawal symptoms while also preventing you from getting high on opioids while taking.

Methadone – Methadone is used to treat opioid use disorders. A drawback of this medication is that it must be taken each day and under supervision.

Naltrexone/Subutex – Also prescribed to control craving for alcohol use disorder, this medication will block the receptors in your brain from attaching to opioids; thus, you won’t get “high” while taking it. If you do use opioids while on Naltrexone, you can increase your risk of overdose.

Suboxone – A brand name medication that contains both buprenorphine and naloxone approved by the FDA in 2002.

Can drug addiction be treated successfully?

Substance use and co-occurring disorders can be successfully treated. Evidence-based treatment programs are part of successful treatment. Research that tracked individuals receiving treatment for substance use disorders demonstrated that these individuals were likely to stop their drug use, decrease criminal behaviors, improve their relationships with family and friends, and experience an overall improvement in their mental health.

It is important to note that treatment success depends on several things, including receiving the correct treatment, admitting to the appropriate level of care for your substance use disorder, treating any underlying disorders, and the relationships developed with therapist and treatment providers.

Some people view relapse, or recurrence, of a substance use disorder as a failure. In medicine, chronic diseases are ones that recur, such as asthma or diabetes. These conditions aren’t curable; however, they are managed through treatment and behavioral changes. Substance use disorders are also chronic and respond well to treatment and behavioral changes to maintain recovery. If you have been sober or abstinent and have returned to using substances, this is not a failure. It is simply a recurrence, and treatment can help you manage your illness and recover.

Finding Treatment for Drug Addiction

There are treatment options available for substance use disorder. You can check with your primary care physician or therapist for treatment recommendations. Google also has information on treatment options, including in- and outpatient, detox, and other treatment facilities. It’s helpful to have your insurance information available so the facility can verify insurance coverage.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has a national helpline to find information on treatment options. They will provide referrals to treatment facilities, support groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and community-based organizations.

The Affordable Care Act requires that health insurance companies in the Marketplace offer addiction and mental health coverage. The coverage levels vary, and there may be restrictions on which inpatient facilities one can select for treatment.

How to Help a Friend or Family Member

It’s difficult to see a loved one who is struggling with a substance use disorder. Many people who are addicted to drugs don’t know the harm they are causing themselves and others. Ultimately, they will be the one to make a decision that they are ready for help, however, you can talk to them to let them know you are worried.

When you talk to your loved one it’s helpful to talk to them privately when they are not high or feeling withdrawals. Try and use “I” statements about how their drug use is impacting you. If they are receptive, have the name and number of a doctor or facility to speak to about treatment options.

If you are seeking help for a loved one, our admissions representatives are available to talk to you any time. It helps to have the insurance information available for your loved one as our admissions will verify insurance coverage.

We offer 100% confidential substance abuse assessment and treatment placement tailored to your individual needs. Call (844)-944-2714

Source

Definition of Addiction
https://www.asam.org/Quality-Science/definition-of-addiction

Report 8 of the Council on Science and Public Health (A-08) Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders
https://www.ama-assn.org/sites/ama-assn.org/files/corp/media-browser/public/about-ama/councils/Council%20Reports/council-on-science-public-health/a08-csaph-substance-use-disorders.pdf

Help with Addiction and Substance Use Disorders
https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/addiction

Your path to recovery is waiting
and we’re here to help.

Our admissions specialist are available 24/7 to listen to your story
and get you started with next steps.

Why call us?

Results from the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Graphics from the Key Findings Report
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/reports/rpt29393/2019NSDUHFFRBriefSlides082120.pdf

Number of substance abuse treatment clients in the U.S. from 2007 to 2019, by abuse problem
https://www.statista.com/statistics/452576/number-of-substance-abuse-treatment-clients-in-the-us-by-abuse-problem/

What is a substance use disorder?
https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/addiction/what-is-addiction

Risk Factors for Addiction
https://www.healthline.com/health/addiction/risk-factors

Drugs and the Brain
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drugs-brain

Drug Misuse and Addiction
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drug-misuse-addiction

Risk Factors for Addiction
https://www.healthline.com/health/addiction/risk-factors

Genetics and Epigenetics of Addiction
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/genetics-epigenetics-addiction

Interaction of Drugs of Addiction with DNA
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128006344000135

The Truth About Cocaine
https://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/cocaine.html

Everything You Need to Know About Fentanyl
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308156#fentanyl-abuse-and-heroin

Opioid Overdose Basics
https://harmreduction.org/issues/overdose-prevention/overview/overdose-basics/responding-to-opioid-overdose/

Overview of State Legislation to Increase Access to Treatment for Opioid Overdose
https://nasadad.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Opioid-Overdose-Policy-Brief-Final5.pdf

Commonly Used Drugs Charts
https://www.drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/commonly-used-drugs-charts

What to Expect from Kratom Withdrawal
https://www.healthline.com/health/kratom-withdrawal

Cannabis and the adolescent brain
https://www.pnas.org/content/117/1/7

Drugs and the Brain
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drugs-brain

Tolerance, Dependence and Addiction: What’s the Difference?
https://archives.drugabuse.gov/blog/post/tolerance-dependence-addiction-whats-difference

Physical Detoxification Services for Withdrawal From Specific Substances
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64116/

Principles of Effective Treatment
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/principles-effective-treatment

Behavioral Therapies
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/evidence-based-approaches-to-drug-addiction-treatment/behavioral-therapies

How Effective is Drug Addiction Treatment
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/frequently-asked-questions/how-effective-drug-addiction-treatment